Regulatory Science

Linguamatics, the leader in natural language processing (NLP)-based text mining, announced that the Federal Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has licensed its 12E text mining platform as a discovery and decision support tool to supplement laboratory research efforts on drug safety.  The FDA will use the platform to review published literature and drug product labels to address key biomedical issues, including mechanisms of drug toxicity and disease processes.  In addition to document retrieval, the 12E platform can identify, extract, synthesize, and analyze relevant facts and relationships (e.g., between genes and diseases, drugs and side effects).  Customers include top tier commercial, academic, and governmental organizations, including 9 of the top 10 global pharmaceutical companies.  The 12E platform is available both as an in-house or cloud-based system.

Typical applications in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and healthcare include:
•    Mapping gene-disease relationships and identifying potentially novel therapeutic targets
•    Biomarker discovery
•    Drug repurposing
•    Drug safety
•    Patent analysis
•    Clinical trial site selection and study design
•    Mining electronic medical records to improve prediction of health outcomes
•    Translational medicine
•    Competitive intelligence
•    Social media mining
•    Subjective data mining (sentiment analysis, key opinion mining)

SourcesBioSpace and Business Weekly

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High-throughput ADME Screening Technologies

Posted by cdavenport on Monday Apr 16, 2012 Under ADME, Drug Safety, Regulatory

High throughput (HT) Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) screening technology is the current push from Big Pharma to be outsourced through contract research organizations (CROs).  Shifting also is the ADME regulatory emphasis; the FDA has released a draft guidance (17 Feb 2012) that includes specific wording around what needs to be done with respect to transporter drug-drug interactions (both efflux and influx).  The guidance will start to drive significant changes in how ADME screening is performed.  Two assays that are routinely being utilized in pharma are the Caco-2 cell-based assay and the PAMPA (parallel artificial-membrane permeation) assay.  As currently practiced, predictive ADME screening is made even more difficult given the variety of transport mechanisms available.  In toxicology screens (ADME-tox), however, one is not looking for altered aspects of the drug, which is generally initially unknown, but changes in known, endogenous parameters.  Thus ADME-tox lends itself more easily to HT platforms.  New platforms for high throughput ADME screening are available, and discussed in this article.

Source:  Drug Discovery and Development

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To make best use of its limited resources, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concludes that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should direct resources to improve the regulatory systems of developing nations to better ensure the safety of the global pharmaceutical supply chain.  Rather than try to inspect all foreign establishments itself, the FDA and its technologically advanced counterparts in the European Union, Canada, Japan, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Australia, and New Zealand are encouraged to plan a system for mutual recognition of inspections, which would eliminate the wasteful duplication of effort.  Along these lines, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) inspection program involving many of the world’s premiere global regulatory bodies (FDA, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare (EDQM), and the Council of Europe (CE)) has formed to facilitate international collaboration and information sharing to enhance inspection capacity.   Since data review and interpretation is already being shared between some global regulatory authorities in the nonclinical safety arena, it will be interesting to see if such global harmonization efforts extend to nonclinical safety inspections in the near future.

 

Sources: 

RAPS – Regulatory Focus:  IOM – Boost Foreign Regulatory Capacity and  Global API Inspection Scheme

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FDA Changes Expected with PDUFA V

Posted by cdavenport on Monday Oct 24, 2011 Under FDA, Regulatory

The average cost of developing a drug was $1.3 billion as of January 2011.  The average first-cycle approval rate for standard new molecular entities (NME) has increased from an average of 30% in 1992 to 38% this year.  Priority NMEs have fared better with the FDA, with approvals rising from 46% to 68% during this same period.

The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) of 2007, which allowed FDA to require post-marketing studies and clinical trials to address outstanding drug safety questions, lowered the percentage of new drugs, biologics, and efficacy supplements approved by the FDA to below 80% in 2Q 2009.  By 1Q 2011, that percentage returned to the mid 90% range, about the same as in 1Q 2005.

The current forth authorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA IV) expires at the end of September 2012.  According to the Draft Commitment Letter signed by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), and Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA),  to increase the chances of successful first-cycle approvals, PDUFA V will delay the start of FDA’s clock for its first review cycle to after its 60-day administrative filing review period.  Once the clock starts, however, FDA is committed to reviewing and acting on 90% of standard NME, New Drug Application (NDA), and original Biologics License Application (BLA) submissions within 10 months —12 months from the date of filing.  FDA has also committed to reviewing 90% of priority NME, NDA, and original BLA submissions within 6 months, or 8 months from the filing date.  Furthermore, once the PDUFA V review clock starts running, drug developers and FDA officials must meet 3 times:

•    A pre-submission meeting at which “the applicant is strongly encouraged to discuss the planned content of the application.”

•    A new mid-cycle meeting, to which the FDA will call an applicant, will generally be held within 2 weeks after the Agency holds its own internal mid-cycle review meeting on an application.

•    A late-cycle meeting at which FDA’s review team will meet with an applicant to discuss the status of Agency review of the application late in the review cycle.

The new mid-cycle review meeting is meant to provide an opportunity for the Sponsor and Agency to discuss what issues have been identified and how to resolve those issues.  It also provides an earlier opportunity for the Agency to alert the Sponsor if additional information is needed related to labeling, Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS), and post-marketing commitments.

PDUFA V raises to $3 billion the amount of user fees to be collected by the Agency from a Sponsor.  User fees of $2.9 billion are required by PDUFA IV.  This user-fee increase will enable the Agency to hire additional staff to review drug and biologic applications.  PDUFA V also commits the FDA to develop staff capacity to review submissions that involve pharmacogenomics and biomarkers and to fund the FDA regulatory science initiatives.  To this end, target dates for completion of new initiatives have been set.

  • Oct. 24, 2011: FDA will hold a public meeting to discuss PDUFA reauthorization.
  • Sept. 30, 2013: FDA will develop a dedicated drug development communication and training staff within the Office of New Drugs (OND) in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), and increase the existing manufacturers’ assistance staff at FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER).   The CDER Rare Disease Program within OND will increase the number of staff focused on rare disease drug reviews, which is particularly important due to the increasing emphasis placed by Big Pharma on orphan drugs.
  • Sept. 30, 2014: OND drug development and communication staff will provide training to all CDER staff involved in review of Investigational New Drug (IND) applications.
  • March 31, 2015: FDA will publish draft guidance for review staff and industry describing best practices for communication between FDA and IND sponsors during drug development.

And finally in regards to drug safety and as an effort to lessen the effect of politically-induced risk aversion by the Agency, PDUFA V also calls for greater integration of patient perspectives into the review criteria.  The Agency has explicit plans over the course of the PDUFA V period to change the way it assesses benefits and risks, as well as the endpoints used to assess safety and efficacy, based on the advice it receives from patients.

Sources: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News, BioPortfolio, BioCentury, Legal News Directory, FDA

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